A Conceptual Framework to Explain Transition of Intercultural Communication Conflict, Social Environment and PersonalityAli Ihtiyar
This study conceptually examines a comprehensive framework that integrates intercultural communication competence (ICC) as a key perspective to better understand intercultural communication conflict in multicultural social environment. Although numerous researchers have studied extensive topics of intercultural communication in various literatures, none have conceptualized on the critical role of ICC or incorporated the construct as a major predictor to intercultural communication conflict and loyalty. ICC explains the ability to consider and internalize the various cultural settings to appropriately manage and build an effective communication in the multicultural atmosphere. ICC, which deals with having the right intercultural mind set, skill and sensitivity is crucial for intercultural encounters particularly in the culturally diverse societies. While, ICC has generated a lot of recent interest amongst scholars and practitioners, there is still a gap on the conceptualization to support or validate its theoretical claims. Hence, the study exposes additional insights into some practical and conceptual solutions for addressing the intercultural communication of culturally diverse encounters in culturally diverse social environment. These contributions postulate an impetus for future research in various service settings.
Intercultural communication conflict, social environment and personality
Ahmad, F. S., Ihtiyar, A., & Omar, R. (2015). Conceptualizing Intercultural Communication Competency for Multicultural Retail Environment. IWFBE, Istanbul-Turkey.
Ahmad, F. S., Ihtiyar, A., & Omar, R. (2014). A comparative study on service quality in the grocery retailing: Evidence from Malaysia and Turkey. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 109, 763-767.
Ahmad, F. S., Ihtiyar, A., Jing, W., & Osman, M. H. M. (2012). Integrating Brand Perception, Culture Dimension and Social Influence in Predicting Purchase Intention in Luxury Brand Market. ICBER Proceeding.
Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1977). Attitude-behavior relations: A theoretical analysis and review of empirical research. Psychological bulletin, 84(5), 888.
Baker, T. L., Cronin Jr, J. J., & Hopkins, C. D. (2009). The impact of involvement on key service relationships.Journal of Services Marketing, 23(2), 114-123.
Biddle, B. J. (1979). Role theory: Expectations, identities, and behaviors: Academic Press New York.
Boag, S., & Tiliopoulos, N. (2011). Personality and individual differences: theory, assessment, and application| Macquarie University ResearchOnline.
Byrne, D. E. (1971). The attraction paradigm (Vol. 11). New York: Academic Press. (Retrieved by Byrne, 1997)
Byrne, D. (1997). An overview (and underview) of research and theory within the attraction paradigm. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 14(3), 417-431.
Chua, R. (2012). The costs of ambient cultural disharmony: Indirect intercultural conflicts in social environment undermine creativity. Academy of Management Journal, amj-2011.
Claeson, B. (2014). Ethnicity as Uncertainty Reducing Behavior: Explaining Acquiescence to Ethnic Violence. Volume 24: September 2014, 46.
Danylova, T. (2013). Awakening Our Awareness: Parables in Intercultural Dialogue. Circulation in more than 70 countries, 1.
Dumont, F., Michaels, H. G., Katu, G., & McKeown, M. (2010). A history of personality psychology: New York: Cambridge University Press.
Earley, P., Christopher, C.M.& Elaine, M. (2007). Cultural intelligence and the global mindset. Advances in International Management. 19, 75-103.
Friedman, V. J., & Antal, A. B. (2005). Negotiating Reality A Theory of Action Approach to Intercultural Competency. Management Learning, 36(1), 69-86.
Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2013). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): SAGE Publications, Incorporated.
Herzog, C. (2010). Intercultural communication conflicts. GRIN Verlag.
Hill, S.R. & Tombs, A (2011). The effect of accent of service employee on customer service evaluation. Managing Service Quality. 21(6), 649 – 666.
Hinds, P. J., & Mortensen, M. (2005). Understanding conflict in geographically distributed teams: The moderating effects of shared identity, shared context, and spontaneous communication. Organization science, 16(3), 290-307.
Hofstede, G. (1984). Culture's consequences: International differences in work-related values (Vol. 5): sage.
Hofstede, G., & McCrae, R. R. (2004). Personality and culture revisited: Linking traits and dimensions of culture. Cross-cultural research, 38(1), 52-88.
Horverak, J. G., Sandal, G. M., Bye, H. H., & Pallesen, S. (2013). Managers’ selection preferences: The role of prejudice and multicultural personality traits in the assessment of native and immigrant job candidates. Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée/European Review of Applied Psychology, 63(5), 267-275.
Ihtiyar, A., & Fauziah, S. (2015). The Role of Intercultural Communication Competency on Service Reliability and Customer Satisfaction. Journal of Economic and Social Studies, 5(1).
Ihtiyar, A., Ahmad, F. S., & Osman, M. H. M. (2014). An Integrated Framework: Intercultural Competence, Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in Grocery Retailing. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 109, 492-496.
Ihtiyar, A., Ahmad, F. S., & Baroto, M. B. (2013). Impact of Intercultural Competency on Service Reliability and Customer Satisfaction in the Grocery Retailing.Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 99(0), 373-381. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.505
Iwao, S. (1997). Consistency orientation and models of social behavior: Is it not time for West to meet East. Japanese Psychological Research, 39(4), 323-332.
Lee, J. Y., & Ciftci, A. (2014). Asian international students’ socio-cultural adaptation: Influence of multicultural personality, assertiveness, academic self-efficacy, and social support. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 38, 97-105.
Leong, C. H. (2007). Predictive validity of the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire: A longitudinal study on the socio-psychological adaptation of Asian undergraduates who took part in a study-abroad program. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 31(5), 545-559.
Linds, W. (2002). The Hidden Connections: Integrating the biological, cognitive, and social dimensions of life into a science of sustainability. (retrieved by Herzog, 2010).
Lloyd, A. E., & Luk, S. T. (2011). Interaction behaviors leading to comfort in the service encounter. Journal of Services Marketing, 25(3), 176-189.
Lustig, M. W., & Koester, J. (2009). Intercultural Competency: Interpersonal Communication Across Cultures Author: Myron W. Lustig, Jolene Koeste.
Kelman, H. C., & Baron, R. M. (1968). Inconsistency as a psychological signal.Theories of cognitive consistency: A source book, 331-336.
Kotler, P., & Keller, K. (2012). Marketing management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Messner, W., & Schäfer, N. (2012) The ICCA Facilitator's Manual. Intercultural Communication and Collaboration Appraisal. London: GloBus Research, p. 41
Nicholls, R. (2011). Customer-to-customer interaction (CCI): a cross-cultural perspective. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 23(2), 209-223.
Paswan, A. K., & Ganesh, G. (2005). Cross-cultural interaction comfort and service evaluation. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 18(1-2), 93-115.
Pekerti, A. A., & Thomas, D. C. (2015). The role of self-concept in cross-cultural communication. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 1470595814564767.
Pervin, L. A. (2003). The science of personality: Oxford university press.
Polsa, P., Fuxiang, W., Sääksjärvi, M., & Shuyuan, P. (2013). Cultural values and health service quality in China. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 26(1), 55-73.
Reimann, M., Lünemann, U. F., & Chase, R. B. (2008). Uncertainty avoidance as a moderator of the relationship between perceived service quality and customer satisfaction. Journal of Service Research, 11(1), 63-73.
Rusbult, C. E., & Van Lange, P. A. (2003). Interdependence, interaction, and relationships. Annual review of psychology, 54(1), 351-375.
Rusbult, C. E., and Van Lange, P. A. (2008). Why we need interdependence theory. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2(5), 2049-2070.
Ryoo, H.-K. (2005). Achieving friendly interactions: a study of service encounters between Korean shopkeepers and African-American customers. Discourse & Society, 16(1), 79-105.
Sefa Dei, G. J., Hall, B. L., & Rosenberg, D. G. (2000). Indigenous knowledges in global contexts: Multiple readings of our world. (retrieved by Herzog, 2010).
Sharma, P., Tam, J. L., & Kim, N. (2012). Intercultural service encounters (ICSE): an extended framework and empirical validation. Journal of Services Marketing, 26(7), 521-534.
Shekarchizadeh, A., Rasli, A., & Hon-Tat, H. (2011). SERVQUAL in Malaysian universities: perspectives of international students. Business Process Management Journal, 17(1), 67-81.
Sizoo, S., Iskat, W., Plank, R., & Serrie, H. (2005). Cross-cultural service encounters in the hospitality industry and the effect of intercultural sensitivity on employee performance. International journal of hospitality & tourism administration, 4(2), 61-77.
Solomon, M. R., Surprenant, C., Czepiel, J. A., & Gutman, E. G. (1985). A role theory perspective on dyadic interactions: the service encounter. The Journal of Marketing, 99-111.
Suanet, I. and Van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2009). Perceived cultural distance and acculturation among exchange students in Russia. Journal Community and Applied Social Psychology. 19: 182–197.
Surprenant, C. F., Solomon, M. R., & Gutman, E. G. (1983). Service encounters are human interactions. Journal of Business research, 20(1), 13-21.
Statistics Department of Malaysia (2013) Population Projection Report. Available http://www.statistics.gov.my/portal/images/stories/files/LatestReleases/ population/Ringkasan_Penemuan-Summary_Findings_2010-2040.pdf (Accessed: 18 August 2014) and conflict.International Journal of Psychology, 35(2), 145-152.
Toomey, A., Dorjee, T., & Ting-Toomey, S. (2013). Bicultural Identity Negotiation, Conflicts, and Intergroup Communication Strategies. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 42(2), 112-134.
Uhrich, S., & Benkenstein, M. (2012). Physical and social atmospheric effects in hedonic service consumption: customers' roles at sporting events. The Service Industries Journal, 32(11), 1741-1757.
Van Oudenhoven, J. P. and Van der Zee, K. I. (2002). Predicting multicultural effectiveness of international students: The Multicultural Personality Questionnaire. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26(6), 679-694.
Van Oudenhoven, J. P., Mol, S., & Van der Zee, K. I. (2003). Study of the adjustment of Western expatriates in Taiwan ROC with the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 6(2), 159-170.
Wang, Z., Arndt, A., Singh, S., & Biernat, M. (2009). The impact of accent stereotypes on service outcomes and its boundary conditions. Unpublished manuscript in progress, extended abstract published in Ann L. McGill and Sharon Shavitt, eds. Advances in Consumer Research. 36, 940-1.
Wells, J. E., and Aicher, T. J. (2013). Follow the Leader: A Relational Demography, Similarity Attraction, and Social Identity Theory of Leadership Approach of a Team’s Performance. Gender Issues, 30(1-4), 1-14.
Yakunina, E. S., Weigold, I. K., Weigold, A., Hercegovac, S., & Elsayed, N. (2012). The multicultural personality: Does it predict international students’ openness to diversity and adjustment?. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(4), 533-540.